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Eye Anatomy


How the eye works


Though it may be small, the human eye is the most complex organ in our body, comprised of many parts that work together to convert light rays into information the brain can interpret.

The cornea allows light to enter the eye and the iris controls the amount of light that reaches the back of the eye by adjusting the size of the pupil.

The lens, which is located behind the pupil, further focuses the light and helps the eye to automatically focus on objects.

The light then reaches the retina at the back of the eye, where images are converted into electronic signals that are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.



  • Optic Nerve: The largest sensory nerve of the eye; it carries electrical impulses from photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) in the retina of the eye to the visual cortex in the brain.
  • Retina: The sensory membrane that lines the back of the eye. Photoreceptors in the retina convert light energy into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.
  • Iris: The pigmented structure surrounding the pupil that determines eye color. The iris increases and decreases the size of the pupil to regulate the amount of light entering the eye.
  • Pupil: The round, dark center of the eye that opens and closes to control the amount of light the retina receives.
  • Cornea: The clear portion of the front surface of the eye that allows light to enter the eye; the cornea provides most of the focusing power of the eye.
  • Lens: The clear, spherical part of the eye located behind the cornea that helps to focus light rays on the retina.
  • Vitreous body: The part of the eye between the lens and the retina, which contains a transparent, colorless gel called vitreous humor that fills the rear two-thirds of the eyeball.
  • Macula: The small, most sensitive area of the central retina that is responsible for visual acuity and color vision.
Eye Anatomy
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